Climate change with its inflictive effects on developed, developing and poor countries is a topic of increasing concern to the international community, especially following the global climate summit in Paris in 2015. The commitments made by almost all countries to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere in order to limit the increase of the average temperature of the planet to manageable levels, require the gradual implementation of radical measures in many sectors, and especially in the energy sector. The role of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in climate change mitigation is crucial, while the replacement of fossil fuels with RES requires major changes in the way we produce and use energy and fuels. The green energy transformation of modern societies requires the understanding of the role of fossil fuels in the aggravation of climate change and the advantages of the use of RES towards its mitigation. This transformation cannot be achieved without understanding the necessity for changing the energy model of the industrial era – the period after the mid-18th century until today – which has led to current environmental deadlocks. This understanding is particularly useful and necessary for young people who shall bear the burden and cost of this complex transition. This book addresses this very topic, that is young people's awareness over environmentally friendly energy technologies, understanding their environmental, social and economic benefits and their role in coping with climate change.