With the development of dentistry, precision of treatment and reduction of trauma have become the trend for further development of oral treatment techniques. In the investigation of oral microorganisms, it is widely recognised that disturbances in the oral microenvironment can cause the occurrence and deterioration of oral diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. How to prevent these diseases by intervening in the oral microenvironment has been a hot topic of discussion in the academic community. Intervention in the oral microenvironment is a precise operation. Interventionists need to maintain the balance of the oral microenvironment without disrupting the balance of other opportunistic pathogens to become dominant, based on the precise intervention of a certain pathogenic bacteria. After following the progress of related research for a long time, I believe that the use of probiotics to change the physical and chemical factors in the oral cavity, and break the growth environment of the dominant bacteria, to restore the balance of the oral microenvironment, is more likely to have practical application. Among them, the substance arginine aroused my interest. This collection of papers consists of three main articles: a summary of existing interventions, a systematic review of the optimal concentration of arginine, and a discussion of the potential application of arginine to oral microenvironmental interventions. I hope you will acknowledge my work.